Traumatic Brain Injury and Pulmonary Lung Blast Injury

America's armed forces are sustaining attacks by rocket-propelled grenades, improvised explosive devices, and land mines almost daily in Iraq and Afghanistan. Over 50% of wounded soldiers suffer from Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) and Pulmonary Lung Blast Injury (PLBI). Blast injuries result from the complex pressure waves generated by an explosion. Pressure waves interact with different body parts and organs differently. Brain and other bone-surrounded, fluid-filled organs and air-filled organs (e.g. ear, lung, and gastrointestinal tract) are especially susceptible to primary blast injury.

Traumatic Brain Injury

Our software integrates explosion gas dynamics, human body dynamics (translocation in air), FEM biomechanics of primary blast injury, and the human body trauma injury and treatment. Multiscale human body injury can be analyzed using 3D FEM based models, distributed compartmental tools, or their combination. The 3D human body injury model couples FEM body biomechanics with the quasi-3D whole body hemodynamics. The hemodynamics model includes 3D topology of major arterial and venous vessels and major organs (heart, lung, brain, liver, etc.) solving coupled blood flow-vessel elasticity equations coupled to organ perfusion and metabolism models. FEM biomechanics and hemodynamics models can be solved in a coupled mode e.g. to analyze blast loading or tissue compression/occlusion. Such coupled 3D high fidelity model is computationally very demanding. Alternative approach is to use distributed compartmental models, which have less anatomic and spatial information, but provide huge computational advantage (speed, rate of model development, ease of model calibration, parametric simulations, easy adaptation to specific human and animal models, etc).

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